Why the bum?
1. Pelvic stabilisation
The gluteus maximus is the strongest and biggest muscle of the body. It plays an important role in pelvic stabilisation. Co-contraction of the gluteus maximus with the psoas major (see picture on the right) contributes to lumbo-sacral (lower back and pelvic region) stabilisation.
The gluteus maximus allows us to maintain an upright position. The gluteus maximus also provides lower back stability through its connection with the erector spinae (deep muscles in the back that keep the back upright). Some of its fibres are continuous with the fibres of the erector spinae. A contraction of the gluteus maximus will generate tension in the erector spinae muscle on the same side, providing stiffness to the spinal column.
The gluteus maximus is a hip extensor (hip extension is the movement where the leg moves towards the back of the body). The gluteal muscles play a very big role in sufficient and efficient movement. Weak gluteal muscles will cause movement problems and compensations that can lead to injuries.
Gluteal amnesia is a condition where your body can’t or forgets how to properly activate the gluteal muscles, whether it’s due to postural flaws or lack of use. As a result, you may lose the ability to move your hips through a full range of motion which adds stress to your knee, lower back, and even your shoulder joints!
There is a test you can do to determine if your glutes are weak. To start this test, stand in front of a chair (facing the chair) and with your feet under the chair and your knees touching the seat. Now squat down and try not to let your knees push into the chair. If you find that your knees are hitting the chair or you are even moving the chair, your glutes are not working properly. If the knees come forward into the chair, you are initiating the squat movement with your quads. This places unnecessary stress on the knees and ankles. The object of this assessment is to try to initiate the squat from the hips (i.e. stick your butt out before your try to bend your knees). Starting a squat from the hips will engage the gluteus maximus.
What causes the gluteal muscles to weaken?
When considering the human body, we know that some muscles are more prone to inhibition than others, and the glutes are one of these “easily-inhibited” muscles. Here are some of the reasons your glutes may be weak or inhibited:
Probably the biggest reason why the glutes shut down is due to inactivity. If you fail to consistently activate a muscle, and you fail to regularly activate a muscle to high levels of capacity, it will inevitably quit working properly. If you spend long periods of time sitting in a chair, then the front of the hips (psoas) become short and tight, while the back of the hips (gluteal muscles) become long and weak. Soon the body forgets how to use the gluteal muscles because it will divert the neural signal intended for them to a stronger muscle close by to do the job instead. Gluteal inhibition can negatively impact posture, and poor posture can further inhibit the glutes, thereby creating a downward spiral in gluteal function.
Pain is a huge inhibitor of the gluteus maximus. The glutes can become inhibited with just about any lower body or spinal injury. Following injury, most people simply keep on keeping on, and their movement patterns suffer. Rather than experiencing proper glute function during movement, they rely on other muscles to get the job done. This will cause many postural and gait compensations. The body is resilient and will find a way to prevail. Next time you go for an early morning drive, pay attention to the joggers. You’ll notice that not many of them appear athletic or possess good running posture. Sadly, most look like they’re “speed-limping.” This is due to compensating for, most likely, weak glutes.
What can happen if my gluteal muscles are weak?
Inhibition and delayed activation of the gluteal muscles can in time lead to weakness of these muscles. Gluteal inhibition negatively affects performance and lower body strength and is a root cause for many injuries and chronic pain. Injuries that can result from weakened glutes include:
Due to delayed gluteus maximus activity, the hamstring muscles become dominant during hip extension, which can cause hamstring strains. A lot of athletes that pulled a hamstring keep suffering re-injuries despite their focus and efforts to strengthen the hamstrings. They are reinforcing a compensation pattern instead of reactivating their inhibited glutes.
2. Low back pain
Gluteus maximus activation plays an important role in stabilising the pelvis during the task of lifting. Delayed gluteus maximus activation causes excessive compensation of the back extensors. The lower back becomes dominant and the glutes are neglected. The body is an interconnected system. If the muscles do not fire where and when they’re supposed to, other muscles compensate, which can result in strain or injury. For example – weak glutes can’t stabilise your pelvis, and cause it to tilt forward, putting pressure on your lower spine. The lower back can be injured if it is forced to do the hip extending job of the glutes.
3. Knee pain
The excessive internal rotation of the femur (inward movement of the leg) as a result of glute weakness increases the pressure on the knee cartilage.
4. Hip pain
Decreased force production from the gluteus maximus during hip extension could lead to increased force and wear and tear on the hip joint structures.
5. Lower-body malalignment
Weak glutes results in postural compensation which in turn leads to poor posture. Over time, compensation causes muscle imbalances, trigger points in muscles, and overuse injury.
Because of compensatory patterns it may be difficult to target and strengthen the glutes. Re-activating your glutes will improve your core stability, prevent lower-body injuries and enhance sport performance and daily activities.
During the “re-education” process, it’s important to have proper perspective. You might have been walking around with a gluteal imbalance for over a decade, therefore it’s going to take some time to rewire your body. If it takes a few months for the problem to normalize, so be it. Each session you’ll be a little bit closer to your goal, so be patient.
There’s a neural and muscular component to fixing the issue. When your glutes are weak, they don’t know how to activate. You need to get it easily-excitable through neural re-education, and then you can focus on increasing strength. If the gluteus maximus firing pattern is so far off that they cannot activate, doing squats and other types of glute exercises will only make the problem worse if you are not using the proper muscle at the proper time to achieve the motion. Retraining the brain to tell the glutes to contract (neuromuscular coordination) is an important part of beginning a glute strengthening program.
It is important to seek professional help when attempting any sort of rehabilitation, so consult your Biokineticist or Physiotherapist before starting an exercise programme.
Life • Health • Movement
What does a Biokeniticist do?
A Biokineticist is a specialist who is recognised by and registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa. They work closely with doctors and other medical practitioners. After detailed, scientific assessments, evaluations and measurements of the patient or individual, a Biokineticist will design exercise programmes to improve the well-being and quality of life of the person.
Why did you become a Biokineticist?
What and where did you study?
Once you have your degree in biokinetics, do you need to do any further studying?
Which subjects should you take at school if you want to follow this career path?
Maths is also important, because when you assess the human body you sometimes need to use calculations to determine different variables.
Chemistry and physics are also important, as it will help in understanding the movement of the body and the different processes involved.
What challenges do you face?
Biokineticists work long and irregular hours, so you really need to love what you are doing.
What do you enjoy most about what you do?
Is it easy to find work as a Biokineticist?
What misconceptions are there about the industry?
What advice would you give to aspiring Biokineticists?
When people ask me what my profession is, I respond with “I am a Biokineticist”. 99% of the time I get a response like “What is that?” or “Oh, so you are like a physiotherapist?”. If you don’t know what a Biokineticist is or what a Biokineticist does, let me explain:
Biokinetics is a medically recognized professional discipline, applying scientifically based physical activity, to help prevent disease or injury or to do final phase rehabilitation following the onset of disease or injury. It improves quality of life and performance (sport and work) through movement.
The word Biokinetics is taken from the Greek words "BIOS" which means "life" and "KINESIS" which means "movement". Therefore, it refers to maintenance of quality of life through the use of physical activity (movement).
Biokineticists are registered with the Health Professionals Council of South Africa (HPCSA), and are bound to a strict code of ethics ensuring that all treatments which the patient receives are of the highest quality.
* Neurological Disorders
* Cardiovascular conditions
* Child Movement Development
* Prenatal Exercise
* Cancer (during and after treatment)
* High blood pressure
* High cholesterol
* Overuse injury
What is Pilates?
People always think that Pilates and Yoga is the same thing. They also believe that Pilates is only for women and that men can’t or shouldn’t do Pilates. Both these assumptions are false. Because Pilates is gentle and challenging at the same time, it is safe and effective for nearly everyone, irrespective of age, sex or fitness ability, from expectant mothers to the super fit. Pilates is a form of exercise, developed by Joseph Pilates, which emphasizes the balanced development of the body through strength, flexibility, and awareness in order to support efficient, graceful movement. Pilates can play a key role in overall health and fitness and is transformational and is a focused method of movement that facilitate positive change in the body and mind. It is a form of exercise that focuses on the individual’s needs in relation to alignment, posture, toning, sport specific training and general health.
* Stress relief
* Relief of general aches and pain
* Improved coordination
* Improved flexibility
* Improved performance
(sport and work)
* Postural improvement
* Increased endurance
* Increased overall strength
* Increased body tone
* Increased energy levels
Pilates emphasizes correct form while exercising and all the Pilates moves require you to engage virtually your whole body. With so many exercise variations and progressions you may have a hard time getting bored with Pilates.
Some key differences between Pilates and Yoga include the following:
Biokinetics · Pilates
Life - Health - Movement
We know that regular fitness is good for the heart and that it can help the body to build muscles and maintain a healthy weight. But it also spurs the release of feel-good chemicals that promote happiness. And now a new study in the Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology adds more evidence to the "happiness" benefit. Researchers from the Penn State University found in their study that the more physically active people reported greater general feelings of excitement and enthusiasm, compared with the less physically active people. "We found that people who are more physically active have more pleasant-activated feelings than people who are less active, and we also found that people have more pleasant-activated feelings on days when they are more physically active than usual," study researcher Amanda Hyde, a kinesiology graduate student at Penn State, said in a statement.
When you exercise and stay active on a regular basis, you may have noticed that you feel less stressed out, less anxious, and generally happier. And that’s not just a coincidence, because studies suggest that there is a direct link between exercise and happiness for a number of reasons:
You're probably familiar with the term "runner's high," which refers to the euphoric feeling one sometimes gets when exercising. The body produces endorphins, which are chemicals that reduce the perception of pain, improve immunity and help you relax. Endorphins are natural mood boosters that enhance feelings of optimism and satisfaction. Exercise promotes the generation and release of endorphins, while reducing the activity of hormones such as adrenalin and cortisol (these promote feelings of anxiety and tension). Regular exercise can help you attain a happier state of mind and a better quality of life.
Dopamine (a chemical in the brain that is called a neurotransmitter) is necessary for feelings of pleasure and happiness. Scientists believe that as we age, we’re constantly losing dopamine stores and an excellent way to increase dopamine levels is through regular exercise (aerobic exercise is probably one of the best releasers of dopamine).When you exercise and your heart begins to beat faster, levels of the feel-good neurochemicals serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine rise in the body. So does brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a substance that can protect the brain from emotional disorders and repair damage caused by stress and depression. At the same time, opiate-like endorphins and endocannabinoids flood the system, leading to a sense of well-being. Exercise is also responsible for the creation of new brain cells in the part of the brain responsible for learning and memory.
Stress can cause a vicious cycle of negative thinking, worrisome thoughts and physical symptoms such as muscular discomfort, indigestion and pain. Exercise provides a distraction from your worries and you will lose weight and get fitter and healthier. You can greatly reduce your risk of chronic illnesses, which are major contributors to stress and anxiety. You will also feel a sense of accomplishment as you exercise harder and for longer intervals of time. Not only will exercising ease stress in the short term by helping you sweat out the day's worries, but regular exercise will help you become less stressed in the long term. That’s because when you exercise, you’re actually subjecting yourself to a low-level form of stress by raising your heart rate and triggering a burst of hormonal changes. When you subject yourself to the stress of exercise enough, your body will eventually get better at handling stress. But if you stay sedentary, your body can become more sensitive to stress.
Exercise engages neurons in the brain, just like it engages muscles in the body. That raises the brain's stress threshold. People who exercise regularly don't respond as dramatically to stress as non-exercisers do. Their heart rate doesn't shoot up as high, and their mood doesn't sink as low. “Expose yourself to this ‘stress’ enough and your body builds up immunity to it. Eventually, it will get better at handling the rest of life’s stressors,” says clinical psychologist Jasper Smits, Ph.D., co-author of Exercise for Mood and Anxiety.
We all have days when we just feel too tired to exercise, when working out is the last thing in the world you want to do. But no matter how exhausted you are from a long day at work, do your best to muster up all the willpower you have and work out, because more likely than not, you'll feel more energized after your workout than you did before it.
Research has shown that exercise can be better at upping energy than stimulants. “A lot of times when people are fatigued, the last thing they want to do is exercise,” says researcher Patrick O’Connor, co-director of the University of Georgia exercise psychology laboratory, in Athens, Ga. “But if you’re physically inactive and fatigued, being just a bit more active will help.” Because no matter how counterintuitive it may seem, exercise actually increases energy levels and fights fatigue. And when you have more energy to do all the things you want to do you’ll ultimately feel more satisfied with life.
When you don't feel good about your body or how you look, it can cause a feeling of low self-esteem and that can have a negative effect on all areas of your life. However, when you start to exercise and see your body transform these negative feelings can quickly change. Exercise will not only make you like how you look, it will also make you feel stronger, more independent, and more confident. When you start working out and achieving goals you never thought possible, you’ll feel an incredible sense of accomplishment.
If you suffer from anxiety, exercise may be a simple cure. Because recent studies on the effects of exercise show that in people suffering from anxiety, the immediate mood boost from exercise is followed by longer-term relief. In fact, exercise seems to work better than relaxation, meditation, stress education and music therapy at easing anxiety.
Exercise can be a useful substitute for antidepressant drugs, according to a 1999 study, originally published in the "Archives of Internal Medicine." In the study, men and women who used aerobic exercise to combat depression had the same success rates as participants who used antidepressants or a combination of exercise and antidepressants. After six months, most of the original participants contributed to a follow-up study, which found that those who stuck to a regular exercise regimen had a lower risk of relapse into depression. An estimated 1 in 10 adults suffer from some form of depression, and even more probably go unreported. But rather than getting prescription meds to treat the blues, try exercising instead.
If you have trouble sleeping, a lack of exercise may be your problem, so skip the sleeping pill and try exercising instead. Staying active and exercising on a regular basis has been shown to improve sleeping problems of insomniacs and people with sleeping disorders. Research shows that people who begin exercising regularly report that their sleep quality improves significantly. And not only can regular exercise significantly improve your sleep quality, it can also give you that pep that makes you want to get out of bed in the morning and do things.
In a 2010 study, researchers at North-western University put people with insomnia on a 16-week exercise program, starting with walking, riding a bike or jogging for 10 to 15 minutes at a time. By week six, they were doing 30 to 40 minutes, four times a week. Afterward, subjects reported a significant bump in their quality of sleep—they fell asleep faster, slept more hours, experienced better moods and felt more alert during the day.
Both exercise and happiness lead to increased production of antibodies, which are a special type of protein produced by the immune system. When everything is working normally, antibodies arrive on the scene shortly after antigens (bacteria, viruses or other unwanted invaders) are detected in the body. Antibodies hunt them down and bind themselves to the antigens. Once locked on, T-cells (the immune system's "killer cells”) arrive and destroy the antigens. Antibodies also help produce other cells that aid and assist in the immune system. People who are happy are more resistant to diseases ranging from the common cold to heart disease, while stress and anxiety tend to make people more susceptible to sickness, including diabetes and stroke. Happiness has been shown to increase antibodies by as much as 50 percent. Exercise has been shown to increase antibody production by as much as 300 percent. Exercise also directly increases the number of T-cells in your body. By increasing numbers of "hunters" (antibodies) and "killers" (T-cells), it's no wonder a workout keeps you healthier. And since people who exercise tend to report higher levels of happiness, the exercise-induced happiness improves the immune system independent of the physiological effects of the exercise.
You do not have to indulge in demanding physical activity to reap the psychological benefits of exercise. The Harvard Medical School says that walking, Pilates, stretching, mental exercises, breathing techniques and muscle relaxation techniques can all be effective in combating stress. To alleviate stress, practice slow, relaxed breathing anywhere and at any time. Controlled muscle relaxation is another effective combatant against tension and anxiety. Meditation is a rewarding exercise that relaxes your mind, makes you more positive and reduces physical signs of stress such as an elevated heartbeat and hypertension. You can also perform chores such as gardening and housecleaning, which can provide substantial exercise and lift your spirits.
Exercise is a powerful weapon against the blues. In the short term, it can elevate mood when you're feeling down. Long term, it can knock out milder forms of clinical depression. And as little as 60 minutes a week of any kind of physical activity can do it: Researchers at The University of Queensland School of Human Movement Studies found that subjects who did low-level activities for at least an hour a week cut their risk for depression by 30 to 40 percent.
Until next time,
1. Mind Body Green. Stryker, K. 2013. 6 Reasons why exercise makes you happy. [Online] Available at: http://www.mindbodygreen.com/0-10798/6-reasons-why-exercise-makes-you-happy.html. [Accessed 3 July 2014]
2. Livestrong. Nair, L. 2014. How exercise improves mood. [Online] Available at: http://www.livestrong.com/article/530791-does-exercise-make-you-happy/. [Accessed 3 July 2014]
3. Huffpost Healthy Living. Chan, A.L. 2013. Exercise makes us happy- It’s science. [Online] Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/02/09/exercise-happy-enthusiasm-excitement_n_1263345.html. [Accessed 3 July 2014]
4. 12 Minute athlete. 2013.7 Surprising Ways Exercise Can Make You Happier. [Online] Available at: http://www.12minuteathlete.com/exercise-and-happiness/. [Accessed 3 July 2014] 5. How stuff works. Scheve, T. 2014. Is there a link between exercise and happiness? [Online] Available at: http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/exercise-happiness3.htm. [Accessed 3 July 2014]
6. Self. Graves, G. 2012. How Exercise Can Make You Happy (in Just 20 Minutes!). [Online] Available at: http://www.self.com/body/fitness/2012/05/benefits-of-exercise. [Accessed 3 July 2014]
What is the immune system?
Lymph nodes are part of your lymphatic system. The lymphatic system produces and store cells that fight infection and disease. It also produces and stores a clear fluid, calledlymph that carries those cells to different parts of the body. Lymph nodes filter the lymph fluid and store cells that can trap bacteria or viruses travelling through the body in the lymph fluid.
The Thymus is a small organ just behind your breastbone. This is where theT-cells mature (the reason why they are called T-cells is because they mature in the Thymus)
The spleen is the largest lymphatic organ in the body. It contains white blood cells that fight infection or disease. The spleen also helps regulate the amount of blood in the body and destroys old and damaged blood cells.
This is yellow tissue in the centre of the bones that is responsible for making white blood cells that will eventually form lymphocytes.
These aresmall white blood cells that play a large role in defending the body against disease. There are two main types of lymphocytes: B-cells and T-cells. B-cells make antibodies that attack bacteria and toxins and T-cells help destroy infected cells.
The Immune System in Action
The body recognizes a foreign antigen(virus or bacteria) and sends it to the lymph system, where it is taken up by a macrophage (cells of the immune system.The macrophage processes the virus and “writes” a code for that virus on the outside of the macrophage.
The antigen signals a helper T- cell. The T-cell reads this signal and signals the other parts of your immune system.
B-cell responds to the signal and reads the antigen from the outside of the macrophage.The B-cell becomes activated and produces antibodiesspecific to the antigen. These antibodies are released into your body to attach to the virus.
The antibodies attach to the antigens. The antibodies send a signal to other macrophages and other immune cellsso that they can surround and destroy the antibody.
Once the number of antigens has dropped and the infection has resolved,suppressor T-cells (cells that inhibit, suppress, or help to stop an immune response) will signal the other cells of the immune system to rest.
Exercise and the immune system
How can exercise boost the immune system?
It has been shown that regular, moderate-intensity physical activity can help protect the body against some diseases, especially those that involve the upper respiratory track (like colds).
Early studies found that recreational exercisers stated that they experienced fewer colds once they began exercising regularly. More recent studies have shown that there are actual physiological changes that occur in the immune system as a response to exercise:
· Moderate exercise has been linked to a positive immune system response and a temporary boost in the production of macrophages (the cells that attack viruses and bacteria).
· During moderate, continuous exercise, your heart gets stronger which allows it to pump more blood throughout the body.
· During moderate, continuous exercise, the lungs get better equipped at handling oxygen and distributing it to the rest of the body. The lungs will also be better equipped to flush viruses and bacteria out of the lungs.
· During moderate exercise immune cells circulate through the body at a faster rate and are better able to kill bacteria and viruses.
· Researchers have found that moderate, continuous exercise produces a blunted immune system stress response. This indicates the immune system has adapted to regular exercise and can tolerate this kind of stress much better. Just like muscles adapt to exercise over time, so does the immune system.
· During moderate exercise, the temporary rise in body temperature may prevent bacterial growth, allowing the body to fight the infection more effectively.
After exercise ends, the immune system generally returns to normal within a few hours, but consistent, regular exercise seems to make these changes a bit more long-lasting. Therefore, when moderate exercise is repeated on a near-daily basis there is a cumulative effect that leads to a positive long-term immune response. This will also allow the body’s immune system to ward off heart disease, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, and some kinds of cancer.
How can exercise harm the immune system?
Studies show that too much intense exercise can reduce immunity. Research is showing that more than 90 minutes of high-intensity endurance exercise can make athletes susceptible to illness for up to 72 hours after the exercise session. Intense exercise seems to cause a temporary decrease in immune system function. During intense physical exertion, the body produces certain hormones that temporarily lower immunity. Cortisol and adrenaline, known as the stress hormones, raise blood pressure and cholesterol levels and suppress the immune system. This effect has been linked to the increased susceptibility to infection in endurance athletes after extreme, high intensity, prolonged exercise.
Can you exercise while you are sick?
The important factors when exercising are:
· Knowing how much exercise is enough
· When exercise is appropriate and when it's not
· Which types of exercise are appropriate for your particular situation
If you are just beginning to exercise more often, here are some tips:
· Take your time. Your immune system and the rest of your body will need time to adapt to regular exercise.
· Start at a duration and intensity level you can easily manage. For some that may be 30 minutes, for others, it may be 10 minutes.
· Keep in mind that positive changes in your immune system are just one small additional benefit you will get from regular exercise. There are many other health benefits as well, such as improved cardiovascular fitness and endurance, and improved flexibility, muscle strength and balance.
For people who exercise regularly, here are a few pointers:
· Light and moderate exercise won’t be harmful, and in some cases may make you feel better when you are feeling a little under the weather.
· It’s okay to have a heavy workout, but it’s not necessary to do a heavy workout every day. Your body and immune system need a chance to rest and return to a normal state.
For athletes and those who train hard (at high intensity levels):
· When you are following a heavy training regime, keep an eye on your health. Watch for signs of feeling worn out or any cold/flu symptoms and try to minimize other risk factors for colds and viruses.
The more physically fit and active you are, the less likely you are to suffer colds in the winter months. As a general rule the healthier you are, the easier you'll find it is to fight off infections. We know that people who exercise regularly have lower levels of stress hormones in the blood, and there's a definite link between low levels of stress hormones and improved immunity. Although it's impossible for most people to avoid catching colds altogether, the findings so suggest that regular exercise can reduce a person's chances of catching a cold, and/or reducing its severity if they do catch it.
just for laughs:
What is Acute stress?
What is Chronic stress?
The following diagram (adapted from The American Institute of Stress)sums up some of the effects stress can have on your
Fighting stress with exercise: Time to get physical
According to the Department of Health in London, “Movement is medicine for creating change in a person’s physical, emotional and mental states.”Regular physical activity increases cerebral blood flow, changes hormone levels, enhances nutrient intake causing increased energy and concentration levels.Physical activity may offer an alternative approach to reducing or managing stress.
According to the Mental Health Foundation, “cross-sectional studies on adults who are employed have found that highly active individuals tend to have lower stress rates compared to low active individuals.Several mechanisms have been suggested to explain how physical activity may reduce the harmful effects of stress. Physical activity reduces arousal (i.e. enhances mood due to distraction from worries or biochemical changes) or increases positive health behaviours during periods of stress (i.e. decreased smoking and healthier eating habits). It has also been suggested that the higher levels of fitness brought about by physical activity result in a more efficient stressregulation (i.e. reduced secretion of hormones, lowered blood pressure) or enhanced recovery from stress. These effects are referred to as stress-buffering”.
Exercise in almost any form can act as a stress reliever. Being active can boost your feel-good endorphins and distract you from daily worries. Exercise has some direct stress relieving benefits:
1)It increases endorphin production: Physical activity helps to increase the production of your brain's feel-good neurotransmitters, called endorphins.
2) It's meditation in motion: Exercise allows you to only concentrate on the movement of your body, instead of all the things that cause you to stress. The resulting energy and optimism that you get from exercising regularly can help you remain calm and clear in everything that you do.
3) It improves your mood: Regular exercise can increase self-confidence and lower the symptoms associated with
mild depression and anxiety. Exercise also improves sleep, which is often disrupted by stress, depression and
Whatever you do, don't think of exercise as just one more thing on your to-do list. Find an activity you enjoy and make it part of your regular routine. According to the Chief Medical Officers of the department of health in London, “However you decide to become physically active it should: be enjoyable; help increase your confidence and perhaps skills; and feel like a positive choice you are making for yourself.”
Plato said: “The part can never be well unless the whole is well.”Participation in regular physical activity can increase self-esteem and reduce stress and anxiety. Physical activity can help play a role in preventing mental health problems and improve the quality of life of those experiencing it. The old saying, "don't sweat the small stuff," is a saying you should try to embrace!!
1. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Mayo Clinic. 1998-2014. Exercise and stress: Get moving to manage stress. [Online] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.org/exercise-and-stress/art-20044469?pg=2 [Accessed 24 February 2014]. 2. The American Institute of Stress. 50 Common signs and symptoms of stress. [Online] Available at: http://www.stress.org/stress-effects/[Accessed 24 February 2014].
3. Discovery Fit & Health. 2014. What are the physical effects of stress? [Online] Available at: http://health.howstuffworks.com/wellness/stress-management/physical-effects-of-stress1.htm[Accessed 24 February 2014].
4. Washington State University Wellbeing. 2012. Stress management. [Online] Available at: http://wellbeing.wsu.edu/emotional/stress-management/[Accessed 24 February 2014].
5. Mental Health Foundation.2013. Let’s get physical: Mental Health Awareness Week 2013. [online] Available at: http://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/content/assets/PDF/publications/lets-get-physical-report.pdf[Accessed 24 February 2014].
6. Good Health. How does stress affect your health? [Online] Available at: http://www.good-health.co.uk/how-does-stress-affect-your-health/[Accessed 24 February 2014].
7. Department of Health PA, Health Improvement and Protection. 2011. Start Active, Stay Active: A report on physical activity from the four home countries’ Chief Medical Officers. London: Department of Health
8. Biology online. 2014. Homeostasis. [Online] Available: http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Homeostasis[Accessed 24 February 2014].
Dr. A Gerber
Dr. Chantell Groenewald
Dr. M De Klerk
Mom & Baby
Wilna Pretorius Biokineticist